Output Hypothesis

The Output Hypothesis, proposed by Merrill Swain, suggests that producing language (speaking or writing) is a crucial part of the language learning process. According to this hypothesis, language output helps learners notice gaps in their knowledge, practice new structures, and receive feedback, leading to improved language competence. The Output Hypothesis emphasizes the importance of opportunities for meaningful language use in communication, encouraging activities that require learners to produce language and interact with others. Teachers can support this by incorporating tasks such as role-plays, presentations, and collaborative writing into their lessons.