Zone of proximal development (see Vygotsky) relates to the earlier concept of scaffolding, where learning takes place within the ZPD, i.e. don’t try to go too far too soon. Vygotsky believed there were three elements that would help the learner cross the Zone of development. These three aspects were having 1. Social interactions with people at a higher competence level than the learner 2. Structures available to help the learner bridge the gap and 3. A more knowledgeable other (MKO) to work with. This need not be a teacher.