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This unit discusses pronunciation. The unit discusses intonation, the volume and pitch pattern of a sentence. This is so ingrained in native speakers that it may be difficult to see and teach, however in statements there is generally a slight rise followed by a fall in pitch at the end of the sentence, which communicates that the speaker has concluded their thought. A fall/rise pattern may indicate that the speaker is asking a question or hasn't finished what they are saying.
The stress of a syllable within a word has some general rules, however there are many exceptions. Stress of certain words within a sentence can change the meaning or context of the statement.
Because there are so many inconsistencies in how letter combinations are pronounced, there are phonemic symbols used in dictionaries that are specific to each sound and help the student understand how to pronounce a new word without hearing it spoken.
Teachers vary in how they like to include pronunciation in their lessons (i.e. dedicate an entire lesson, dedicate part of a lesson, or just address pronunciation issues as they come up in class). Teachers can use their own mouth or visual diagrams of a mouth to show students how to pronounce words or sounds. To teach stresses or intonation they can use clapping or sweeping hand/arm movements, respectively.