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TESOL Videos - English Grammar Overview - Parts of Speech - Nouns
Let's begin our examination of parts of speech with nouns. Nouns are our naming words. They name a person or people, such as Jack, Jill, brother, Prime Minister. We have a place or places such as kitchen, Tokyo. Things or the things around us: pen, light, camera. We have our concepts and ideas: beauty, democracy. These people, things, places and concepts fall into two basic subcategories. Those subcategories are countable and uncountable. As their name suggests, the differentiation here is whether or not we can count our nouns or if we cannot count them. We have our countable nouns: dogs, pens, are two examples. The very nature of the words means that we can count these nouns one dog or 5, 10. Then, we have our uncountable nouns. The nouns that cannot be separated: music, bread. It's important to notice and be able to identify the difference between countable and uncountable nouns, as often this dictates the rest of our sentence. We have to use certain words with countable nouns and certain words with uncountable nouns. I can say "I have many dogs in my neighborhood." or "I have a few pens here." However, if I want to talk about music or bread, I need to use words such as "I haven't much music at home." or "I have a little bread." Nouns that are uncountable, we cannot normally pluralize them. For example, I cannot say "I have many types of music at home." Further subcategories of nouns include common nouns, proper nouns, compound nouns and collective nouns. A few examples of common nouns would be: brother, city, street. These nouns are not typically capitalized unless they come at the beginning of the sentence. We have our proper nouns. A brother has a name like Tom. Tom needs a capital letter. It is a proper name. You have Tokyo. Tokyo is the proper name of a city and Downing Street. "Downing" needs the capital as it's the proper name of the street. We also have our compound nouns. Compound nouns put two nouns together and they're thought of as. One they can be listed as two words, a hyphenated word or one word, such as lifeboat, bookcase, car park. We also have our collective nouns. Collective nouns are the nouns that group individual things or people together. "Family" is one example. "Family" groups together relatives. We also have "herd", "a herd of cattle". Another example would be "a pride", "a pride of lions".
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During the last decade or so many researches were held in different universities all over the world concerning aids usage in EFL classes, which we speak about in the Unit 17. All these researches have proven high effectiveness of supplementary materials usage in the EFL classroom. In education, visual and audio aids have many effects and importance on providing learning permanent. The more a learning activity addresses to the five senses the more the learning event becomes effective and permanent, and forgetting becomes less. Students like to feel, that the materials they study on have a connection with real world and appropriate for their age, level of education and intellectual ability. When using just course books, teacher cannot satisfy these students? needs. In this case adding audio and visual materials to the lesson plays vital role. The purposes for using equipment and teaching aids during the lesson: 1. They provide economy in time and reduce TTT 2. Increase students? interest and motivation by making the lesson vivid and clear 3. They make complex explanations easier for the teacher and simpler for students? understanding 4. They enrich the lesson and course altogether. Apart from being an excellent tool to improve the language acquisition, the use of visual in the classroom provides a more meaningful context for the students. All these factors lead students to become more participative and communicative members of the class group. So, as we can see just teacher for successful learning is not enough. We always, as parents, use as much additional materials as we can to teach our kids. EFL students in the process of learning are no different from kids. Why not to use colorful books, flashcards, charts and audio/video files to help them achieve grater success.