Child developmentChild development is how a human being becomes fully functioning adults.
Growth patterns vary individually. Much variation is due to heredity, but much environmental experiences are involved to an extent.
Experts divide child development into three broad categories. They are
Intellectual development, communication and learning,
Social, Emotional and behavioral development.
One of the most important physical developments during early childhood is the continuing development of the brain and nervous system. Although the brain continues to grow in early childhood, it does not grow rapidly as in infancy.
Motor Development is most visible innate abilities. There are three kinds of motor skills they are gross motor, Fine motor and balance/ co-ordination.
Gross motor skills involve larger muscles of the body, and they develop rapidly in early childhood. The first motor skills to develop include lifting the head, rolling over, sitting up, crawling, etc. which are seen in infancy.
Fine motor skills involve hand, fingers, wrist, feet, toes lips and tongue. The development of fine motor skills take patience and longer than gross motor skills and requires a variety of activities experiences as well as plenty of practice. The first fine motor skill which typically appears when the child turns one is holding an object between the thumb and index finger.
Balance/Co-ordination skills are required for more complex motor skills to develop. These don’t involve moving from place to place, these involve twisting, turning, pushing, pulling, wiggling etc. Hand and eye co-ordination is important in developing balance and co-ordination.
Intellectual development is learning and understanding complex issues.
Early concepts of intellectual development are speech reading and reasoning. Later concepts are socialization, verbal and written communication and strength of character.
Social development is growth of a child’s ability to relate to others and become independent.
Emotional development is growth of a child’s ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately.
Social development in toddlers tends to be very self - centered, but willing imitates the behaviour of those around them. If they see fighting they will exhibit fighting and if they see kindness they will exhibit kindness. And their nervous system is very sensitive, and if over stimulated by noise and confusion it can lead to frustration which will cause crying, kicking, biting, fighting or temper tantrums. This is due to the inability to express their emotions
From ages four to five children
love to imitate adults, girls love to play with dolls and boys love to imitate action characters in cartoon, favourite movies etc. at this age they can begin to show leadership and become bossy. They begin to understand fairness and complain about things which are unfair. They want to be liked by others and be praised at all times. You can see that their imaginations are developing by role playing alone or with their friends.
From ages six to eight children are concerned how they are viewed by other children of their same age. Friendship becomes extremely important and competition becomes part of life. They become very protective of their younger siblings at this age. They begin to show confidence in things which they are good at and frustration on things that are difficult. As they are increasing their vocabulary they are able to express their feelings better. This leads to less frustration and temper tantrums.
From ages nine to twelve children dominate or submissive personalities begin to emerge with the children of the same age. They have particular interest and know what their interests are. They are sensitive to strengths and weaknesses and can analyse these. They like challenges and like competition. They begin to move beyond the concrete stage and begin to learn abstract concepts. At this stage bullying exists. Bullying among girls tend to include teasing and social isolation. And bullying for boys tends to include more physical fighting, teasing and picking on weaker children.