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This unit teaches pronunciation and phonology of the English language. They are the most difficult to standardize when teaching and are therefore the most neglected aspects of teaching English. Phonology is the study, science, analysis, and classification of the physical properties of sounds. There are three main area of phonology: stress, rhythm, and intonation. All of these areas are supported by the knowledge of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Where intonation is the variation in volume and pitch in a whole sentence, stress focuses on the volume and pitch of individual words. There are three types of intonation. Normal intonation follows a rise and fall pattern. Intonation that elicits surprise, disagreement, or a response follows a fall and rise pattern. The third type of intonation is flat intonation. This type normally uses short phrases and is used when the speaker doesn't have much to say or doesn't want to communicate further.
Some techniques for teaching or indicating intonation are using nonsense words, using gestures, humming or singing, and using the board. It is also important for the teacher to use their own mouth as an example. Seeing how the words are formed by a native English speaker makes it easier for the students to pronounce the words. It gives them a visual they would not normally have when learning from a teacher who is not a native English speaker.